The rise and fall of the American fallout shelter

author Vox   3 years ago

Whatever happened to fallout shelters? And would they have actually worked?

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In this episode of Vox Almanac, Vox's Phil Edwards looks at the history behind one of the Cold War's more unusual legacies — the fallout shelter. Of course, any history of the fallout shelter has to include nuclear proliferation, civil defense, Presidential politics, and a turtle named Bert.

The video above serves as a condensed history of the Cold War’s fallout shelter fad, from the kookily cheerful propaganda videos to the hobbled Federal agencies that tried to administer Civil Defense. Yes, it includes the classic Cold War film Duck and Cover, in which a bomb-fearing turtle named Bert teaches kids that hiding under their desks could be sufficient protection from nuclear annihilation.
Any history of fallout shelter culture (and Cold War propaganda) becomes an indirect history of Cold War nuclear escalation, from Hiroshima-sized bombs to hydrogen behemoths. As the nuclear threat increased in magnitude, the absurdity of civil defense amped up simultaneously.
This video (and a day spend trawling the Internet Archive for darkly humorous videos) provides a more intimate portrait of Cold War paranoia as it was lived. Paired with Kenneth Rose’s comprehensive book about fallout shelter culture, it’s a look at daily life with the bomb — even when that daily life included the occasional jaunt to a thick-walled concrete bunker a few feet underground.

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Not all of World War II’s battles were public. Venereal disease was a major front in the war. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Venereal disease has long been an issue for militaries, but during World War II, the problem became bigger and more global. That required unusual tactics and unorthodox strategies to beat syphilis and gonorrhea during the war. In this episode of Vox Almanac, Phil Edwards explores some of the ways the United States military fought this epidemic. Starting with Bousbir in Casablanca, it’s a tour of the uneasy relationship the military had with prostitution, recreational sex, and the venereal diseases that soldiers contracted. Both in America and around the world, it was a significant problem that resulted in health troubles and days lost on the battlefield. This piece uses numerous sources, but the most useful resource might be the history found here: https://collections.nlm.nih.gov/catalog/nlm:nlmuid-1278003R-mvset Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com. Watch our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Or Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H

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What vending machines can teach you about this country Subscribe to the Vox Borders newsletter for weekly updates: http://www.vox.com/borders-email Follow Johnny for more photos and videos from his travels around the globe. Facebook: https://goo.gl/l0x5cA Instagram: https://goo.gl/CduwlO While in Japan I noticed vending machines everywhere. Looking into it a little deeper a discovered that there's a very interesting answer to why Japan has so many vending machines. It's an economic story but it's also a story about how Japanese society values robotics and automation. I even found a business card vending machine: https://youtu.be/Ogb7FyzQhbk Vox Borders is a new international series focused on telling the human stories that emerge from lines on the map. Johnny will travel to six border locations to produce a final set of documentaries. While he travels he'll release dispatches on YouTube and Facebook documenting his experiences. Learn more: http://www.vox.com/borders-dispatch Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

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At its peak in December 1999, AOL had a market capitalization of $222 billion dollars. Since then, the influx of broadband internet and the burst of the dot-com bubble reduced the one- time internet behemoth to a shadow of its former self. AOL once dominated email, internet connectivity, online news, and chat. AOL couldn't maintain its superior position as subscription and advertising revenue dried up with the shift from dial-up modems to cable broadband. A disastrous merger with Time Warner in 2000 was unwound in 2009. Along the way, AOL tried but failed to buy Facebook, YouTube and a minority stake in Chinese Internet company Tencent, Eventually, AOL to sold to Verizon in 2015 for just $4.4 billion. » Subscribe to CNBC: https://cnb.cx/SubscribeCNBC » Subscribe to CNBC TV: https://cnb.cx/SubscribeCNBCtelevision » Subscribe to CNBC Classic: https://cnb.cx/SubscribeCNBCclassic About CNBC: From 'Wall Street' to 'Main Street' to award winning original documentaries and Reality TV series, CNBC has you covered. Experience special sneak peeks of your favorite shows, exclusive video and more. Connect with CNBC News Online Get the latest news: https://www.cnbc.com/ Follow CNBC on LinkedIn: https://cnb.cx/LinkedInCNBC Follow CNBC News on Facebook: https://cnb.cx/LikeCNBC Follow CNBC News on Twitter: https://cnb.cx/FollowCNBC Follow CNBC News on Instagram: https://cnb.cx/InstagramCNBC #CNBC #AOL The Rise And Fall Of AOL

There's a 50 square mile section of land in Idaho where a murderer could get away scot free. Read more here: http://www.vox.com/2014/5/22/5738756/you-can-kill-someone-in-a-section-of-yellowstone-and-get-away-scot Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Dazzle camouflage was fantastically weird. It was also surprisingly smart. WWII saw another kind of strange history unfold: a meme (yes, really). Watch our video on it here: http://bit.ly/2Co9DEu Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Dazzle camouflage was a surprisingly effective defense against torpedoes. In this episode of Vox Almanac, Phil Edwards explains why. World War I ships faced a unique problem. The u-boat was a new threat at the time, and its torpedoes were deadly. That led artist Norman Wilkinson to come up with dazzle camouflage (sometimes called “razzle dazzle camouflage”). The idea was to confuse u-boats about a ship’s course, rather than try to conceal its presence. In doing so, dazzle camouflage could keep torpedoes from hitting the boat — and that and other strategies proved a boon in World War I. This camouflage is unusual, but its striking appearance influenced the culture, inspired cubist painters’ riffs, and even entered into the world of fashion. Though dazzle camouflage lost its utility once radar and other detection techniques took over from u-boat periscopes, for a brief period in time it was an effective and unusual way to help ships stay safe. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com. Watch our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Or Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H

This video is about doors. Joe Posner investigates, with some help from 99% invisible, a wonderful podcast. Check them out here: http://www.99pi.org Subscribe to our channel here: http://goo.gl/0bsAjO There's a door on the 10th floor in the Vox Media office I hate so much. You probably know one of these too. But it's not our fault. And luckily, Roman Mars of 99% Invisible magically arrived in my cellphone to send me on a cross-country journey to find out the incredible surprises behind this common complaint: Don Norman started complaining about doors over 25 years ago. Doors shouldn't need instructions – the shape of them can guide you through just fine. So why do so many doors need instruction manuals right on the side of them? When most people complain about something, nothing happens. Don Norman is not most people – he's a psychologist and cognitive scientist. Don Norman thought about, and wrote about his complaints so incredibly thoroughly that he changed the world. 99% Invisible's Roman Mars helps tell the story. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. 99% Invisible is a member of http://Radiotopia.fm Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

There's a tiny island on the East River that you've probably never heard of, and you're not allowed to visit it. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Most people have probably never heard of it but there is a tiny 100 by 200 foot island on the East River in New York City called U Thant Island. It’s right below Roosevelt Island and next to the United Nations headquarters and has more history per square foot than most places in Manhattan. It’s origin dates back to the late 19th century when construction of an underground tunnel produced a tiny mound of rock that was originally named Belmont Island, after August Belmont Jr. who financed the construction project. In the intervening years it was leased by a Buddhist spiritual group, crashed into by numerous vessels, and briefly occupied by a protesting artist.

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Automation is coming for truckers – but first, they're being watched. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO The promise of self-driving trucks will radically reshape one of America's most common jobs. There are 3.5 million professional drivers in the US, all of whom may face job displacement in the autonomous future being developed by companies like Otto, Daimler, and Tesla. But before robots take the wheel entirely, there will be a long period where truckers and artificial technology split the responsibilities of the work. The first big step toward that future comes in the form of the electronic logging device, a dashboard monitor that tracks speed, location, and a driver's schedule, and reports it to an employer or a third-party monitoring service. It has a lot of truckers worried. Read Karen Levy's work here: https://goo.gl/XHYuvv https://goo.gl/BVJWmY Read the FMCSA's report on ELD safety: https://goo.gl/ydYx1R Read the NAS report on driving fatigue: https://goo.gl/VJVZMa Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Don’t panic. Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab 65 million years ago, a large asteroid collided with Earth near present-day Chicxulub, Mexico. The impact was a climactic event that likely contributed to dinosaur extinction. Today, Earth remains vulnerable to asteroid collisions. In recent history, space rocks have landed in The United States, Russia, and elsewhere. In the event of a potential asteroid collision, NASA has developed several options for dealing with the threat. Researchers at NASA’s Center for Near Earth Object Studies and Jet Propulsion Laboratory have proposed using blunt force, weaponized deflection or a theoretical tool called a gravity tractor to deflect impact. In addition to developing contingency plans, NASA scientists are also searching the sky for future asteroid threats. Sources: Source article: https://www.vox.com/a/asteroid-day Chicxulub impact information: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=8 NASA JPL: https://www.nasa.gov/asteroid-and-comet-watch NASA asteroid tracking: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/edu/news/2017/4/18/how-nasa-studies-and-tracks-asteroids-near-and-far/ NASA Center for Near Earth Object Studies: https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/ Congressional hearing on asteroids: https://www.c-span.org/video/?311602-1/threats-asteroids-meteors Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

When houses are the size of parking spaces. Follow Johnny on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/johnny.harris/ Follow the Vox Borders watch page: https://www.facebook.com/VoxBorders/ Sign up for the Borders newsletter: http://www.vox.com/borders-email With original music by Tom Fox: https://m.soundcloud.com/user-416166523 Hong Kong is the most expensive housing market in the world. It has been ranked as the least affordable housing market on Earth for eight years in a row, and the price per square foot seems to be only going up. The inflated prices are forcing Hongkongers to squeeze into unconventionally small spaces that can affect their quality of life. Tens of thousands of Hongkongers are living in spaces that range from 75 to 140 square feet. To put that in perspective, the average parking space in the US is about 150 square feet. And in the most extreme cases, Hongkongers have resorted to homes the size of a coffin. I spent some time exploring the living situation in Hong Kong to find out why housing has become so expensive and spaces so tight. To understand how Hong Kong’s housing market turned out this way and see how it’s affecting people’s lives, watch the final episode of Borders Hong Kong. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox Borders is an international documentary series by Emmy-nominated producer Johnny Harris exploring life at the edge of nations. For more, visit vox.com/borders. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

The Hubble Deep Field, explained by the man who made it happen. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO If you hold a pin at arm’s length up in the air, the head of the pin covers approximately the amount of sky that appears in the Hubble Deep Field. The iconic 1995 image is crowded, not because it’s a broad swath of sky but because it’s a broad swath of time. The Hubble Deep Field is more than 12 billion light-years deep. Robert Williams was the director of the Hubble’s science institute back in 1995, and it was his decision to attempt a deep field observation with the telescope. Previous calculations had indicated that Hubble would not be able to detect very distant galaxies, but Williams figured they’d never know unless they tried. His team chose a completely dark part of the sky, in order to see beyond the stars of the Milky Way, and programmed Hubble to stare at that spot for 10 days. It was unusual to use precious observing time to point the telescope at nothing in particular, but that’s what they did. "We didn’t know what was there, and that was the whole purpose of the observation, basically — to get a core sample of the universe," Williams said, borrowing the concept of the "core sample" from the earth sciences. "You do the same thing if you're trying to understand the geology of the Earth: Pick some typical spot to drill down to try to understand exactly what the various layers of the Earth are and what they mean in terms of its geologic history." What makes the Hubble Deep Field an atypical core sample is that rather than observing the material as it is now, the telescope collected images of galaxies as they appeared millions and billions of years ago. Since light can only travel so fast, the telescope is a peephole into the history of the universe. Click here to download the Hubble Deep Field images: http://www.spacetelescope.org/science/deep_fields/ Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

How did American Gothic go from third place painting to icon? There's a story to this famous painting. Find the Overrated Facebook page here: https://www.facebook.com/OverratedTheShow/ Find Phil Edwards on Facebook here: https://www.facebook.com/philedwardsinc1/ Grant Wood's American Gothic is a classic painting. But to understand its fame, you have to learn some context about how it became an icon. When Grant Wood painting his sister and dentist in front of a house in Eldon, Iowa, he didn't know his painting would become iconic. But American Gothic soon became the subject of countless homages and parodies. Wood's place in American art history is unique — and worth knowing to truly appreciate American Gothic. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Why is the US drinking age 21? And how did it happen? In this episode of Vox Almanac, Vox’s Phil Edwards explores the history of the somewhat unusual way the drinking age became 21. Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It brings you closer to our work and gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab After prohibition — the total ban on alcohol — many states established a minimum legal drinking age of 21. But that began to change after the voting age was lowered to 18. Many states followed by lowering their drinking ages, which changed the landscape for the entire country. By the 1980s, this unusual patchwork of drinking ages started to be seen as a problem, especially by activist organizations like MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers) and RID (Remove Intoxicated Drivers). They lobbied for a 21-year-old minimum legal drinking age, and President Ronald Reagan supported the cause. His mechanism for enabling a national law? Threatening to withhold Federal Highway funding to states that didn’t comply. It was an unpredictable strategy for an official typically hesitant to use federal power over the states, and the practice was eventually challenged in the Supreme Court, where it was upheld. Beyond the political clash, it’s a look at how roads shape policy. Further reading Watch President Reagan’s speech about his alcohol policy. The Reagan Library on YouTube has a huge repository of speeches, photo ops, and ephemera related to the Reagan Presidency. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nfe-hU6zGS8 Here are the full remarks with Michael Jackson: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgFgTs5N8q8 And another view of that day’s events: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VHSf8sIMBM8 Here’s the Center for Disease Control’s review of the minimum legal drinking age’s (MLDA) effects (including the paper cited in this video): https://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/minimum-legal-drinking-age.htm For a dissenting view, you can read this paper questioning the effectiveness of the MLDA: https://www.nber.org/papers/w13257.pdf This is the Supreme Court case that affirmed the MLDA law. https://www.oyez.org/cases/1986/86-260 Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com. Watch our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Or Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H

How to design fear, explained with 99% Invisible. Check them out here: http://99pi.org Correction: The correct spelling of “warning” in Persian is هشدار. Watch the previous episode from this series: http://bit.ly/2DDIQAL Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Chances are you wouldn’t be able to recognize a biohazard even if you were looking right at one. But the biohazard symbol? It’s pretty easy to spot. Most warning icons rely on previously established objects or symbols: a general caution might use an exclamation point, and a fire warning might use an illustration of a flame. But the biohazard symbol references an idea that is much harder to picture — and in the 50 years since its invention, it has become one of the most recognizable icons on the planet. But can the meaning of a symbol like this last an eternity? A special Department of Energy project is trying to figure that out. Read more: https://goo.gl/U82Ehn This video was made in partnership with 99% Invisible, a podcast about all the thought that goes into the things we don’t think about, hosted by Roman Mars. You can find full episodes at http://99pi.org Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Frances Glessner Lee created dollhouses with dead dolls. In this episode of Vox Almanac, Vox's Phil Edwards explains why. Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab Follow Phil Edwards on Facebook here: https://www.facebook.com/philedwardsinc1/ Frances Glessner Lee's "Nutshell Studies of Unexplained Death" are part of a new exhibit at the Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian Art museum. The collection is part art, part science, and part creepy peek into the world of forensic science. These miniatures significantly advanced forensics and forensic science, but they aren't just CSI curios - they're complex, confounding works of art that manage to be morbid and beautiful at the same time. Lee's legacy bridges both the art world and the world of crime — and you'll get a chance to see exactly how her nutshell studies work. These aren't just dollhouses — they're entire worlds worth exploring. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Five experts discuss what a war on the Korean peninsula would look like, how close we are to conflict, and the terrifying consequences. Read about the implications of war with North Korea on Vox.com: http://bit.ly/2nNK2ei With tensions between the US and North Korea escalating, we asked a group of experts including Senator Tammy Duckworth, about the likelihood and consequences of reigniting war on the Korean Peninsula. International sanctions have put pressure on the North Korean regime, but they have yet to capitulate to US demands to unilaterally disarm their nuclear armaments program. The Trump administration had cited this as a requirement for resuming diplomatic negotiations. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com. Watch our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Or Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H

Journalist Baz MacDonald searches for evidence of the survival bunkers being shipped to New Zealand, while investigating the factors causing this rise in paranoia among the rich and the effect this rhetoric has on their destination of choice - the mountain resort town, Queenstown. Correction to credits: Matt Henley - Camera Operator Click here to subscribe to VICE: http://bit.ly/Subscribe-to-VICE About VICE: The Definitive Guide To Enlightening Information. From every corner of the planet, our immersive, caustic, ground-breaking and often bizarre stories have changed the way people think about culture, crime, art, parties, fashion, protest, the internet and other subjects that don't even have names yet. Browse the growing library and discover corners of the world you never knew existed. Welcome to VICE. Connect with VICE: Check out our full video catalog: http://bit.ly/VICE-Videos Videos, daily editorial and more: http://vice.com More videos from the VICE network: https://www.fb.com/vicevideo Click here to get the best of VICE daily: http://bit.ly/1SquZ6v Like VICE on Facebook: http://fb.com/vice Follow VICE on Twitter: http://twitter.com/vice Follow us on Instagram: http://instagram.com/vice The VICE YouTube Network: VICE: https://www.youtube.com/VICE MUNCHIES: https://www.youtube.com/MUNCHIES VICE News: https://www.youtube.com/VICENews VICELAND: https://www.youtube.com/VICELANDTV Broadly: https://www.youtube.com/Broadly Noisey: https://www.youtube.com/Noisey Motherboard: https://www.youtube.com/MotherboardTV VICE Sports: https://www.youtube.com/NOC i-D: http://www.youtube.com/iDmagazine Waypoint: https://www.youtube.com/Waypoint

Jell-O was a household staple in the United States throughout the 20th century. Once the star of dinner parties, Jell-O is now served as shots to college students. From 2009 to 2018, Jell-O dropped $371 million in sales. We unpack what lead to its rise and fall. MORE RISE AND FALL: The Rise And Fall Of Juicy Couture https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AVAc1gYLZK0 The Rise And Fall Of BlackBerry https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBwlpJSq75o The Rise And Fall Of Cadillac https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UY-7-TIIW2w ------------------------------------------------------ #Jello #Food #BusinessInsider Business Insider tells you all you need to know about business, finance, tech, retail, and more. Visit us at: https://www.businessinsider.com Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/businessinsider BI on Facebook: https://read.bi/2xOcEcj BI on Instagram: https://read.bi/2Q2D29T BI on Twitter: https://read.bi/2xCnzGF BI on Amazon Prime: http://read.bi/PrimeVideo The Rise And Fall Of Jell-O

That bench won't be yours forever. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO When designing urban spaces, city planners have many competing interests to balance. After all, cities are some of the most diverse places on the planet. They need to be built for a variety of needs. In recent years, these competing interests have surfaced conflict over an unlikely interest: purposefully uncomfortable benches. Enter the New York City MTA. They’ve installed 'leaning bars’ to supplement traditional benches & save platform space. But designs like this carry an often invisible cost: they rob citizens of hospitable public space. And the people who experience this cost most directly are those experiencing homelessness. A few notes of thanks: First to Historian A. Roger Ekirch who kindly got me up to speed on the expansion of streetlights in historic western city districts. Another thanks goes to author Veronica Harnish, who outlined some of the pitfalls that people experiencing homelessness face when choosing between sleeping rough or utilizing emergency shelters. You can read her blog here: http://car-living.blogspot.com/ A third thank you goes to the staff at the Unites States Interagency Council on Homelessness — they supplied the map in this video, as well as some aggregate statistics of the United States homeless population. Those numbers come from a variety of annual ‘Point-In-Time’ counts. The 2018 event will take place in late January, and the process depends on volunteers — so if you'd like to participate, you can find your local organizer here: https://www.hudexchange.info/grantees/find-a-grantee/?state=&program=on&coc=on¶ms=%7B%22limit%22%3A20%2C%22sort%22%3A%22%22%2C%22years%22%3A%5B%5D%2C%22searchTerm%22%3A%22%22%2C%22dir%22%3A%22%22%2C%22grantees%22%3A%5B%5D%2C%22state%22%3A%22%22%2C%22programs%22%3A%5B3%5D%2C%22coc%22%3Atrue%7D##granteeSearch Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

China claims they aren't military bases, but their actions say otherwise. Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab China is building islands in the South China sea and its causing disputes among the other nations in the region; Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The US has many allies in the region and uses its massive Navy to patrol international waters, keeping shipping lanes open for trade To truly understand the international conflicts and trends shaping our world you need a big-picture view. Video journalist Sam Ellis uses maps to tell these stories and chart their effects on foreign policy. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Well? Would you? Vox's Phil Edwards asked author James Gleick about the history of this unusual philosophical question. Follow Phil Edwards and Vox Almanac on Facebook for more: https://www.facebook.com/philedwardsinc1/ Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

One island, two worlds. Follow Johnny on social media to stay up to date: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/johnny.harris Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/johnnyharrisvox The six Vox Borders documentaries, presented by lululemon, are publishing weekly on Tuesdays. Thanks to our sponsor, lululemon. Link for lululemon's Mens Pants: https://shop.lululemon.com/c/men Haiti and the Dominican Republic share a border, and an island. But the two countries are very different today: the Dominican Republic enjoys higher quality of life for many factors than Haiti. I went to this island and visited both countries, to try and understand when and how their paths diverged. And I began to learn how those differences are playing out in the present. Vox Borders is a new international documentary series presented by lululemon, by Emmy-nominated videojournalist Johnny Harris. For this series, Johnny is producing six 10-15 minute documentaries about different borders stories from around the world. Vox Borders Episodes: 1. Haiti and the Dominican Republic ( https://youtu.be/4WvKeYuwifc) 2. The Arctic & Russia (https://youtu.be/Wx_2SVm9Jgo) 3. Japan & North Korea (https://youtu.be/qBfyIQbxXPs) 4. Mexico & Guatemala (https://youtu.be/1xbt0ACMbiA) 5. Nepal & The Himalaya (https://youtu.be/ECch2g1_6PQ) 6. Spain & Morocco (https://youtu.be/LY_Yiu2U2Ts) Credits: Video by Johnny Harris Producer: Christina Thornell Story Editor: Joss Fong Animation: Sam Ellis Assistant Editing: Mwita Chacha Fixer and Translator: Pascal Antoine Executive Producer: Joe Posner Managing Producer: Valerie Lapinski Art Director: Dion Lee Engagement Editor: Blair Hickman Senior Engagement Manager: Lauren Katz Audience Development Manager: Agnes Mazur Engagement Video Producer: Tian Wang

Get smart with Brilliant for 20% off by being one of the first 500 people to sign up at http://brilliant.org/wendover Subscribe to Half as Interesting (The other channel from Wendover Productions): https://www.youtube.com/halfasinteresting Check out my podcast with Brian from Real Engineering: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/showmakers/id1224583218?mt=2 (iTunes link) https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_10vJJqf2ZK0lWrb5BXAPg (YouTube link) Support Wendover Productions on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/wendoverproductions Get a Wendover Productions t-shirt for $20: https://store.dftba.com/products/wendover-productions-shirt Youtube: http://www.YouTube.com/WendoverProductions Twitter: http://www.Twitter.com/WendoverPro Email: WendoverProductions@gmail.com Reddit: http://Reddit.com/r/WendoverProductions Animation by Josh Sherrington (https://www.youtube.com/heliosphere) Sound by Graham Haerther (http://www.Haerther.net) Thumbnail by Joe Cieplinski (http://joecieplinski.com/) Nuclear reactor footage courtesy Canada Science and Technology Museum Spent fuel pool courtesy IAEA Imagebank Onkalo photo courtesy Posiva Music: "Raw Deal" by Gunner Olsen, "Divider" by Chris Zabriskie, "My Luck" by Broke for Free, and "I Wanted to Live" by Lee Rosevere Big thanks to Patreon supporters: Kevin Song, David Cichowski, Andy Tran, Victor Zimmer, Paul Jihoon Choi, Dylan Benson, M van Kasbergen, Etienne Dechamps, Adil Abdulla, Arunabh Chattopadhyay, Ieng Chi Hin, Ken Rutabana, John Johnston, Connor J Smith, Rob Harvey, Arkadiy Kulev, Hagai Bloch Gadot, Aitan Magence, Eyal Matsliah, Sihien Goh, Joseph Bull, Marcelo Alves Vieira, Hank Green, Plinio Correa, Brady Bellini

A carefully executed publicity campaign turned a pretty average pilot into an aviation legend. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Amelia Earhart is often thought of as the first or greatest female pilot of her time. But the real reason she is seen as an aviation legend comes from a carefully executed publicity campaign starting with her transatlantic passenger flight in 1928, which launched her out of obscurity and into celebrity status. From there, she pursued an ambitious career of record-breaking and stunts in order to stay in the headlines and fund her aviation career. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

America grew from a colony to a superpower in 200 years. Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab 2:07 Correction: Cuba seceded from the US in 1902. With over 800 military bases around the globe, the US is easily the most powerful nation on earth. But it wasn't always this way. The US once played an insignificant role in global affairs. In this 8-minute video, you can see the transformation. Military budget data: https://www.nationalpriorities.org/campaigns/military-spending-united-states/ US foreign bases based on David Vine's book, "Base Nation" http://www.davidvine.net/base-nation.html Troop numbers: "Total Military Personnel and Dependent End Strength By Service, Regional Area, and Country". Defense Manpower Data Center. November 7, 2016. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

What do all those bodies of water really mean? In this episode of Vox Almanac, Phil Edwards travels through the map to define bodies of water. Find Phil Edwards on Facebook here: https://www.facebook.com/philedwardsinc1 Bodies of water seem simple: but there are a lot of different terms for bodies of water. From well-known terms like ocean, lake, river, and tributary, to more obscure ones like tarn, kettle lake, and firth, these bodies of water shape our world. So put on your geography life jacket and go for a swim in the fantastic world of water. You'll learn about gulfs, arroyos, fjords, oceans, bays, coves, and man other definitions for bodies of water. We can help you understand them — but you have to explore them. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Route 66 is iconic. Why? Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It brings you closer to our work and gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab Route 66 has gained a reputation as the United States of America’s most famous road. How did that happen, and why does it still matter? In this episode of Vox Almanac, Vox’s Phil Edwards explores the history of the road and the textures of its present, from the road itself to the roadside attractions along the way, to the people who enjoy its diversions and those who help maintain them. It reveals a road that’s changed a lot over the decades but remains vital in unexpected ways. When Cyrus Avery helped found Route 66 in the 1920s, he strived to create a road that would connect the Midwest to the West, and he resorted to promotional tricks and wheeling and dealing to get it done. The road quickly became a key route for migrants escaping the dust bowl and depression, forming its early reputation as “the Mother Road.” That’s because it’s a road that’s more than a strip of concrete (or gravel, or dirt). It’s a historical document of everyone who’s traveled on it — as the many contributions from Vox’s YouTube subscribers show, that keeps it going even as the interstates run alongside it. The number of Route 66 resources out there is huge, but we found these particularly helpful. Check out Ron's site! https://www.route66news.com/ The Curt Teich Archives https://www.newberry.org/curt-teich-p... You won't find essays here, but you will find a treasure trove of postcards that we used in this piece, including tons of Route 66 arcana. Route 66: The Highway and Its People https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/080... I got to speak with Quinta Scott about her gorgeous photographs of Route 66, as well as the interviews she recorded with coauthor Susan Kelly. This book is a pleasure to look at and is packed full of information and interviews that you just can’t get any more. The Route 66 Road Ahead Partnership http://route66roadahead.com/ If you’re curious about Route 66 preservation and revitalization, this group is one of the strongest interstate partnerships searching for new ways to promote and improve the road. Our video about the Green Book, a critical resource for black Americans wanting to travel across the country on Route 66 and beyond in the mid-1900s. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b33PN2NB2Do Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com. Watch our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Or Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H

The DeLorean was supposed to be the car of the future. Then they stopped making it. Help us make our channel more ambitious by joining the Vox Video Lab. Becoming a member brings you closer to our work and gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with your favorite Vox creators. Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO In this episode of Vox Almanac, producer Phil Edwards explores the past and present of the DeLorean Motor Company, which made the infamous DMC-12. Though many today know the car through the movie Back to the Future, DeLorean has its own incredible story to tell (and one that’s almost harder to believe than a story about time travel). John Z. DeLorean is at its center as the founder and namesake of the company. His path through the upper echelon of General Motors seemed to have set him on course for that company’s Presidency — but he dreamed of starting his own company. The result was the DeLorean Motor Company, which was established in America and eventually planted a factory in Dunmurry, Ireland, near Belfast and during the sectarian civil war known as “the Troubles.” For this video, we interviewed Barrie Wills about his experience working at the company — but we also talked to DeLorean owners about the ways the car has endured, thanks to the movie Back to the Future, and, more importantly, their own ingenuity and creativity. A DeLorean community has kept the car going and, despite the fact that production ended in the early '80s, the car continues to inspire new fans even today. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com. Watch our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Or Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H

New nuclear energy technology has come a long way - but can we get over our fears? This is the fifth episode of Climate Lab, a six-part series produced by the University of California in partnership with Vox. Hosted by Emmy-nominated conservation scientist Dr. M. Sanjayan, the videos explore the surprising elements of our lives that contribute to climate change and the groundbreaking work being done to fight back. Featuring conversations with experts, scientists, thought leaders and activists, the series takes what can seem like an overwhelming problem and breaks it down into manageable parts: from clean energy to food waste, religion to smartphones. Sanjayan is an alum of UC Santa Cruz and a Visiting Researcher at UCLA. Prior episodes at https://goo.gl/Htdlkb/ Check back next Wednesday for the final episode. Visit http://climate.universityofcalifornia.edu for more.Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO And check out the University of California’s channels: https://goo.gl/PhoV3G https://goo.gl/Ec2hml /// The University of California is a pioneer on climate research, renewable energy and environmental sustainability. UC is dedicated to providing scalable solutions to help the world bend the curve on climate change. UC research is also paving the way for the university to meet its goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2025. Read more about our commitment at https://goo.gl/z2fN3O Follow UC on Facebook: https://goo.gl/QJZSZK Or on Twitter: https://goo.gl/MKFNcv Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out Vox’s full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyEFollow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5HOr on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

What exactly makes a journey to Mars so perilous? Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Every bowling lane has a hidden oil pattern. In this episode of Vox Almanac, Phil Edwards finds out what that means. Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab Every lane has a pattern. In this episode of Vox Almanac, Phil Edwards explores how they change the game. Bowling isn’t just about a great ball and good form — if you want to understand the sport, you have to understand the lane. Every bowling lane, including the one in your neighborhood alley, is coated with an oil pattern to protect the wood. But these patterns aren’t just for protection — the way in which oil is applied to the lane can affect the speed and direction of your ball. These patterns are so important that recreational bowlers and professional bowlers bowl on vastly different patterns — the Professional Bowlers Association (PBA) even classifies the patterns it uses in tournaments. Phil Edwards met with professional bowler Parker Bohn III at his childhood bowling alley, Howell Lanes in Howell, New Jersey. He guided Phli through the complex strategy a pro bowler uses when encountering different oil patterns. Not only do they have to assess which pattern is in use, but they also have to judge how that pattern changes as the oil shifts and slides over the day. Knowing how to play a specific lane can be the difference between a title and second place. But these patterns aren’t just for the pros — they’re relevant to recreational bowlers as well. Watch the video to see how you can use these patterns to step up your game. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Before Central Park was built, a historically black community was destroyed. Become a Video Lab member! http://bit.ly/video-lab If you’ve been to New York, you’ve probably visited Central Park. But there’s a part of its story you won't see. It’s a story that goes back to the 1820s, when that part of New York was largely open countryside. Soon it became home to about 1,600 people. Among them was a predominantly black community that bought up affordable plots to build homes, churches and a school. It became known as Seneca Village. And when Irish and German immigrants moved in, it became a rare example at the time of an integrated neighborhood. Everything changed on July 21, 1853. New York took control of the land to create what would become the first major landscaped park in the US -- they called it “The Central Park.” In the Vox series Missing Chapter, Vox Senior Producer Ranjani Chakraborty revisits underreported and often overlooked moments from the past to give context to the present. Join her as she covers the histories that are often left out of our textbooks. Our first season tackles stories of racial injustice, political conflicts, even the hidden history of US medical experimentation. Have an idea for a story that Ranjani should investigate for Missing Chapter? Send it to her via this form! http://bit.ly/2RhjxMy Sign up for the Missing Chapter newsletter to stay up to date with the series: https://vox.com/missing-chapter Explore the full Missing Chapter playlist, including episodes, a creator Q&A, and more! https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLJ8cMiYb3G5fR2kt0L4Nihvel4pEDw9od The Institute for the Exploration of Seneca Village History website: http://projects.mcah.columbia.edu/seneca_village/ The exhibit on Seneca Village through the Central Park Conservancy: https://www.centralparknyc.org/programs/discover-seneca-village Check out the 1856 before and after Central Park plans at the New York Public Library, as well as dozens of other Central Park maps and archives: https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/6850fc74-5e61-8806-e040-e00a18067a2c Read the full report on the 2011 Seneca Village excavations: http://s-media.nyc.gov/agencies/lpc/arch_reports/1828.pdf Read the New York Times’ coverage of Seneca Village: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/28/opinion/seneca-central-park-nyc.html Read The Park and the People by Elizabeth Blackmar and Roy Rosenzweig for a comprehensive history of Central Park, including Seneca Village: https://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu/book/9780801497513/the-park-and-the-people/ Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com. Watch our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Or Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H

Juicy Couture went from being beloved by celebrities like Paris Hilton to being sold at discount retailer Kohl’s. While the brand dominated the early 2000s with its tracksuits, accessories, and perfume lines, it quickly lost its value following the Great Recession. MORE RISE AND FALL: The Rise And Fall Of BlackBerry https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBwlpJSq75o The Rise And Fall Of Cadillac https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UY-7-TIIW2w The Rise And Fall Of Playboy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0Rye5DTx9c ------------------------------------------------------ #JuicyCouture #Fashion #BusinessInsider Business Insider tells you all you need to know about business, finance, tech, retail, and more. Visit us at: https://www.businessinsider.com Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/businessinsider BI on Facebook: https://read.bi/2xOcEcj BI on Instagram: https://read.bi/2Q2D29T BI on Twitter: https://read.bi/2xCnzGF BI on Amazon Prime: http://read.bi/PrimeVideo The Rise And Fall Of Juicy Couture

Kilroy was here — those three words showed up in a lot of surprising places. Follow Phil Edwards and Vox Almanac on Facebook for more: https://www.facebook.com/philedwardsinc1/ We know about the epic drama of World War II, but what about the jokes? The above video tells the story (as best as we can). The iconic piece of graffiti that was known, in America, as "Kilroy Was Here" traveled the world in a fashion remarkably similar to a modern meme. Read some more background here: http://www.vox.com/2015/12/11/9886246/kilroy-was-here Sounds via RiverNile7, Daemeon1427, and JasonElrod, found at Freesound.org. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Buffering... Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO /// Sources: FCC 2015 Notice of Inquiry: https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-15-10A1.pdf FCC 2016 Broadband Progress Report: https://www.fcc.gov/reports-research/reports/broadband-progress-reports/2016-broadband-progress-report FCC Broadband Deployment Map: https://www.fcc.gov/reports-research/maps/bpr-2016-fixed-25mbps-3mbps-deployment/ FCC 4G Data: https://www.fcc.gov/reports-research/maps/nationwide-lte-coverage-ye-2015/ Community and Regional Development Research Study on Economic Health in non-metro counties: https://cardi.cals.cornell.edu/sites/cardi.cals.cornell.edu/files/shared/documents/ResearchPolicyBriefs/Policy-Brief-Feb15-draft03.pdf Akamai State of the Internet Report, 2017: https://www.akamai.com/us/en/about/our-thinking/state-of-the-internet-report/ FCC 2017 Notice of Inquiry: http://transition.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2017/db0808/FCC-17-109A1.pdf /// High-speed internet service is lacking in much of rural America. The causes are complicated, but non-competitive cable markets, misguided government funding, and infrastructural obstacles have limited expansion up until now. Despite the troubles, some rural Americans are receiving internet via both wireless and wireline systems, but the internet service many receive falls short of the 25mbps up/3mbps down set by the Federal Communications Commission in 2015 during the Obama Administration. Receiving that level of service typically requires a wireline connection provided by fiber optic cable, which many rural residents don't have because the remote territories that would be served are hard to reach and require massive investments that private cable companies like Verizon, AT&T, and Comcast aren't willing to make. If service is available, it is often much more expensive than similar service in urban markets. An idea for solving the problem might be to adopt the funding model similar to the one that helped expand rural electrification during the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. At that time, the government paid local electric cooperatives willing to do the work to provide electricity in their communities. Unlike electrification, there are many models for broadband deployment, including cooperatives, but also municipal broadband, private companies and other public-private partnerships. If Trump's government plans to spend more money on rural broadband, then following the model of electrification might help correct some of the funding troubles that have plagued broadband expansion up to this point. /// Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

There's no physical button, but there is a "football" and "biscuit". Read more about Trump's taunting tweet on Vox.com here: http://bit.ly/2EpdQED. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Just a week into 2018, Donald Trump tweeted a provocative message directed at the North Korean regime's leader, Kim Jong Un. His message cited a "nuclear button", and claimed that his was much larger than Kim's. But how does the U.S. protocol for launching nuclear warheads actually work? It's a process that's designed to be fast - there are only a few steps. But it's still more complicated than a simple button. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

The moon landing was a feat of engineering, accomplished through the careful deconstruction of a 3,000 ton spacecraft. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Apollo 11 launched on July 16, 1969, carrying Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins on a journey to pull off humankind’s first moon landing. The eight-day journey was made possible by the careful deconstruction of the Saturn V rocket and Apollo spacecraft, and made use of a technique of docking components of the spacecraft in lunar orbit so the astronauts could land on, and then launch from, the lunar surface. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com. Watch our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Or Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H

What was "glorious Technicolor?" It was a groundbreaking technology — but it was more than that, too. Find an extra commentary video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mJCtHs-dh0M To learn more, check out: The George Eastman Museum: https://eastman.org/ Eastman's Technicolor Online Research: https://www.eastman.org/technicolor-online-research-archive/ Barbara Flueckiger’s Timeline of Historical Film Colors: https://filmcolors.org/ Follow Phil Edwards on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/philedwardsinc1/ In this episode of Vox Almanac, Phil Edwards explores the history of Technicolor: both the technology and the company. Many people recognize Technicolor from The Wizard of Oz, but the technology existed long before then. Two strip Technicolor and three strip Technicolor both revolutionized the film industry and shaped the look of 20th century film. But Technicolor also influenced movies through its corporate control of the technology. People like Natalie Kalmus shaped the aesthetic of color films, and directors redesigned their sets and films based on the Technicolor look that the company — and viewers — demanded. Though the process we traditionally recognize as Technicolor is no longer in use (the company does continue), the look remains influential even today. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

There's a hidden market in the supermarket — Vox's Phil Edwards explains. Follow Phil Edwards and Vox Almanac on Facebook for more: https://www.facebook.com/philedwardsinc1/ Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Teachers in America have a uniquely tough job. But it doesn't have to be that way. *Note: At 1:09, we misspelled "Sweden." We apologize for the error.   Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO From hours worked to pay rates, countries like Finland, Japan, and South Korea make teaching a more respected and sustainable profession. Sources: A Coming Crisis in Teaching?Teacher Supply, Demand, and Shortages in the U.S.-- The Learning Policy Institute (https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/A_Coming_Crisis_in_Teaching_REPORT.pdf) OECD Pisa Results: http://www.oecd.org/education/launch-of-pisa-2018-results-paris-december-2019.htm How teachers in the U.S. and Finland see their jobs-- National Center for Public Education (https://www.nsba.org/-/media/NSBA/File/cpe-how-teachers-in-the-us-and-finland-see-their-jobs-report-july-2018.pdf?la=en&hash=8BB8003186563CA6873C8849F160400FE6049607https://www.nsba.org/-/media/NSBA/File/cpe-how-teachers-in-the-us-and-finland-see-their-jobs-report-july-2018.pdf?la=en&hash=8BB8003186563CA6873C8849F160400FE6049607) OECD Education at a Glance (https://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance/) Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com. Watch our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o Or Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H

Trump says the F-35 is too expensive and he's not wrong. But this is what he's up against. Sources: 1:09 http://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/our-insights/defense-offsets-from-contractual-burden-to-competitive-weapon 1:15 https://www.sipri.org/databases/armstransfers 1:49 http://tucson.com/business/tucson/major-raytheon-expansion-could-bring-nearly-jobs-to-tucson/article_9509443f-390a-5c37-8861-9fb45179c5ab.html http://www.dailybreeze.com/article/zz/20130503/NEWS/130509581 http://www.boeing.com/company/general-info/#/employment-data 2:44 http://www.politico.com/story/2015/08/is-lockheed-martin-too-big-too-fail-121203 3:58 http://www.nytimes.com/2001/12/12/business/boeing-s-war-footing-lobbyists-are-its-army-washington-its-battlefield.html http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2002/06/uncle-sam-buys-an-airplane/302509/ 4:24 https://www.f35.com/about/economic-impact 4:44 http://www.businessinsider.com/this-map-explains-the-f-35-fiasco-2014-8 Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Lockheed Martin F-35 is the Pentagon's newest fighter jet. In a single tweet, Trump called to cancel the program. But the F-35 can't be cancelled because its deeply embedded in American politics, military and economy. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Fahrenheit, explained to the rest of the world Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab Since I've moved to the US in 2010, there's one thing that I still don't fully understand: the imperial system. Virtually every country on earth uses Celsius but America has yet to follow. Although it might not seem like a big deal, not using the metric system puts America at a great disadvantage. For example, American kids have to learn 2 sets of measurements making science education even more difficult. On top of that, American companies have to produce extra products to export to metric countries. So why does the United States still have such an antiquated system of measurement? Read more about Fahrenheit here: https://www.vox.com/2015/2/16/8031177/america-fahrenheit Read more about the metric system here: https://www.vox.com/2014/5/29/5758542/time-for-the-US-to-use-the-metric-system Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Hint: single-payer won’t fix America’s health care spending. Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab Americans don't drive up the price by consuming more health care. They don't visit the doctor more than other developed countries: http://international.commonwealthfund.org/stats/annual_physician_visits/ But the price we pay for that visit - for a procedure - it costs way more: http://static1.squarespace.com/static/518a3cfee4b0a77d03a62c98/t/57d3ca9529687f1a257e9e26/1473497751062/2015+Comparative+Price+Report+09.09.16.pdf The price you pay for the same procedure, at the same hospital, may vary enormously depending on what kind of health insurance you have in the US. That's because of bargaining power. Government programs, like Medicare and Medicaid, can ask for a lower price from health service providers because they have the numbers: the hospital has to comply or else risk losing the business of millions of Americans. There are dozens of private health insurance providers in the United States and they each need to bargain for prices with hospitals and doctors. The numbers of people private insurances represent are much less than the government programs. That means a higher price when you go to the doctor or fill a prescription. Uninsured individuals have the least bargaining power. Without any insurance, you will pay the highest price. For more health care policy content, check out The Impact, a podcast about the human consequences of policy-making. https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-impact/id1294325824?mt=2 Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

It wasn't always this way for the Republican Party. Help us make more ambitious videos by joining the Vox Video Lab. It gets you exclusive perks, like livestream Q&As with all the Vox creators, a badge that levels up over time, and video extras bringing you closer to our work! Learn more at http://bit.ly/video-lab Watch the history of the Democratic Party: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z6R0NvVr164 Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Today’s Republican Party opposes big government. It’s culturally conservative. Its demographic support is strongest among white voters, and it usually dominates elections in the South. And its 2016 presidential nominee has been heavily criticized for inciting racial tensions. But things weren’t always this way. Over the past 160 or so years, the party has undergone a remarkable transformation from the party of Abraham Lincoln… to the party of Donald Trump. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Many have tried to keep a white shark in captivity. Here's why that's so difficult. There are several aquariums around the world, including one in Georgia, that house whale sharks, the biggest fish in the sea. But not one has a great white shark on display. Aquariums have made dozens of attempts since the 1970s to display a captive great white shark. Most of those attempts ended with dead sharks. By the 2000s, the only group still trying was the Monterey Bay Aquarium, which spent a decade planning its white shark program. In 2004, it acquired a shark that became the first great white to survive in captivity for more than 16 days. In fact, it was on display for more than six months before it was released back into the ocean. In the following years, the Monterey Bay Aquarium hosted five more juvenile white sharks for temporary stays before ending the program in 2011. It was an expensive effort and had come under criticism due to injuries that some of the sharks developed in the tank. Responding to those critics, Jon Hoech, the aquarium's director of husbandry operations, said: "We believe strongly that putting people face to face with live animals like this is very significant in inspiring ocean conservation and connecting people to the ocean environment. We feel like white sharks face a significant threats out in the wild and our ability to bring awareness to that is significant in terms of encouraging people to become ocean stewards." Check out the video above to learn why white sharks are so difficult to keep in captivity and how the Monterey Bay Aquarium designed a program that could keep them alive. Link to the Biodiversity Heritage Library: https://www.flickr.com/photos/biodivlibrary/albums Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

Philly has thousands of murals. How did it happen? In this episode of Vox Almanac, Phil Edwards finds out. Follow Phil Edwards and Vox Almanac on Facebook for more: https://www.facebook.com/philedwardsinc1/ Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Philadelphia's mural arts program started in the 1980s as an anti-graffiti initiative under Mayor Wilson Goode. But founder Jane Golden took the idea far from its anti-graffiti roots. Today, Mural Arts Philadelphia is a large public art organization that innovates through public and private funds. These murals increase property values, draw in tourists, and help employ the artists creating them. In addition to that, the public art can be a tool for communities to express themselves. Famous Philadelphia murals have included works by Shepard Fairey, Keith Haring, Meg Saligman, and many others. That makes it a unique model of public art for cities around the world. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

The design process for problem-solving, in 4 steps. Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO Many thanks to Tim Brown and TED for this interview we recorded at TED 2017. IDEO is an international design company founded in 1991. In the beginning, IDEO designed products—the first notebook-style computer, hard drives, even the next generation (of its time) PalmPilots. Most notably, in 1980, the firm was tasked by Steve Jobs to design a more affordable mouse for the Apple Lisa computer. By 2001, IDEO stepped away from designing products and pivoted to designing experiences. The process to solving problems, whether they be simple or complex, encompass these four steps: observing, ideamaking, prototyping, and testing. Tim Brown, CEO and president of the company, explains how human-centered design (and this four-step process) is a major key in how IDEO approaches complex challenges. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o

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